Unfortunately, Brown points out, Tchaikovsky's melodic gift could also become his worst enemy in two ways. The first was due to his ethnic heritage. Like the majority of 19th-century Russian composers, Tchaikovsky possessed a penchant for melody. However, unlike Western themes, the ones that Russian composers wrote tended to be even more self-contained than those in Russian folk songs, even when they were written with broad, multi-phrase structures as Tchaikovsky tended to do. This, Brown says, was typical of Russian creativity, which functioned with a mindset of stasis and repetition rather than the one of progress and ongoing development that dominated Western creative thought. On a technical level, it made modulating to a new key to introduce a contrasting second theme—literally a foreign concept that did not exist in Russian music—exceedingly difficult.
The second way melody worked against Tchaikovsky was one he shared with the majority of classical composers of his era. Romantic-age developments in widening expressive, timbral and harmonic ranges in their music led to a new and much more significant place for melody than it had occupied with Haydn, Mozart or Beethoven. However, the melodies these composers wrote to accommodate these qualities were not the regular, symmetrical melodic shapes that worked well with sonata form. As Warrack points out, they were complete, independent melodies, which as Tchaikovsky's friend and former pupil Sergei Taneyev observed cannot be easily combined or used as structural elements. All a composer like Tchaikovsky could do with them, Taneyev says, even when modifying them to generate tension, maintain interest and generally satisfy listeners, was essentially repeat them. This was why, Cooper maintains, the Romantics "were never natural symphonists."
Harmony was a potential trap for Tchaikovsky, according to Brown. Russian creativity revolved around inertia, he explains, with plays, novels and operas that were essentially a sequence of self-enclosed tableaux, while Western harmony was a study in motion, propelling the music and, on a larger scale, giving it shape. Modulation, the shifting from one key to another, was a driving principle in both harmony and sonata form, the primary Western large-scale musical structure since the middle of the 18th century. Modulation maintained harmonic interest over an extended time-scale, provided a clear contrast between musical themes and showed how those themes were related to each other.и т.д.
Интересно также сравнить объем статей о Чайковском в русской и английской Википедиях.